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Ancient Mesopotamia
Assyria Nineveh
Arslan Tash Til Barsip
Iran Palace of Darius
Phoenicia Arabia Palmyra
Syrian coast
Ougarit Byblos

Head of a Horned Dragon
AO 4106
Not on show
This object would have decorated
an item of furniture of the cella
of Marduk in Babylon.
The dragon’s eyes and sockets
were incrusted with precious materials.
A major god of Babylon,
where 55 temples were dedicated
to him, Marduk is considered the
founding god of the city. A198

 This head of a Horned Dragon, a symbol of Marduk

He became the supreme god after taking on the traits of the divinities belonging to the old Sumerian pantheon, including the triad made up of Anu the sky, god of Uruk, Enlil the lord of the Earth and the atmosphere, and Enki or Ea, lord of underground waters.
Enamelled Brick from Ishtar’s Gate. Museum of Iraq
The mushkhushu is an imaginary creature, the symbol of Marduk. It is made up of different animals: the lion, bird of prey, serpent and the fish.
Despite everything, the Babylonians were never able to conceive of the notion of a single, unique god whose very existence would logically exclude the existence of any other divinity. Monotheism was beyond the spiritual comprehension of the Babylonians. Their belief in gods differed from that of the Assyrians who expended their energy above all in conquests and wars. A199
The Hebrew form, Merodak, appears only once in Jeremiah 50:2 where it is predicted that his fall with coincide with the taking of Babylon. The Babylonian Kings Merodak-Baladan (Isaiah 39:1) and Evil-Merodak (2 Kings 25:27) undoubtedly took their names from this god.
The history of Babylon and its decline is a striking example of the fulfilment of biblical predications. ‘The accomplishment was complete: solitude and piles of ruins’ A1100

The destruction of Babylon,
an example of the realization of biblical prophecies


Ruins of Babylon

photographed in 1932


  “She will not be inhabited […]

she will nevermore be dwelt in, nor will she reside for generation after generation.”
Jeremiah 50:13, 39 
The final book of the Bible also announces the fall of a ‘great Babylon’ and of its founding god.
This main opponent to God, also compared to
a great dragon (Revelation 12:9), is put out of harm’s way by Jesus Christ glorified.
“And he seized the dragon,
the original serpent, who is the Devil
and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years.” – Revelation 20:1, 2

 “And Babylon, the decoration of kingdoms, the beauty of the pride of the Chal·de´ans, must become as when God overthrew Sod´om and Go·mor´rah. She will never be inhabited.”

Isaiah 13:19-22. 


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