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Ancient Mesopotamia
Assyria Nineveh
Arslan Tash Til Barsip
Iran Palace of Darius
Phoenicia Arabia Palmyra
Syrian coast
Ougarit Byblos


Votive Bas-Relief of Dudu,
Priest of Ningirsu

AO 2354
Richelieu room 1a

The narrative motive of this plaque
is organized in superimposed registers
and it already evokes
a symbolic structuring of space
and the position of man in the world.

 Bas-Relief of Dudu, Louvre

There is no Sumerian myth which formally relates to the creation of the universe. A120

In Enûma Eliš, an epic poem about creation recorded on seven clay tablets, Marduk, the supreme god, only wins the day after a bitterly-fought battle. He cuts up the body of Tiamat, primordial goddess of the ocean. With one half, he makes the vault of the sky and with the other, the Earth. Then, ‘so that the gods can live in a place in which the heart rejoices’, he created humanity. According to the Babylonian poem Atra-Hasis, man was created for the benefit of the gods. The creation of man thus reveals an order of necessity and not an order of gratuity or love as was the case in the story of the Bible. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead, man comes from the tears of Ra. The Theogony exposes the imaginary and barbaric Greek concept of the origin of the universe.  A121 , A122

 A symbolic and polytheistic structure of space

Unlike the story of the Bible,

“Babylonian cosmogonies are all transformations. The question of the origin of things is never asked. It always originates from something to be transformed.”  

Jean Bottéro


The Babylonian poem is
mythological and polytheist.
Genesis denotes
the highest form of monotheism.
The text engenders man’s
adoring disposition
towards the Creator.

 Genesis : highest form of monotheism

All these legends are characterized by common traits such as polytheism or the violent battle between the divinities for supremacy, which is in distinct contrast to the Hebrew monotheism specific to the story of Genesis.
    Tablet of the God Enki     AO 6020

Richelieu room 3 showcase 15 (4)

This tablet belonging to the Louvre shows the end of the myth of Sumerian creation known by the name ‘Enki and the World Order’.

Close to man, Enki decided on the ordering of the world and organized
the movement of time. It was he who visited each country in order
to ‘put a halt to fate’.

Celebrated as the god of creation
and wisdom, he was also considered
the lord of fresh water,
dispenser of fertility.
Myth of Archaic Creation   AO 4153  
Myth of Sumerian Creation   AO 6724

Myth of Creation:  fundamental divergence between
the basic concepts of the Babylonian and Hebrew stories

There in fact exists such a fundamental divergence A124 between the basic concepts of the Babylonian and Hebrew stories that borrowing of the simple but coherent text of Genesis is inconceivable. 
“In [the] beginning God created the heavens and the earth.”   A123

Bible scholars are unanimous: this first verse of the Bible conjures up an act that is distinct from those that will be accomplished during the days of creation.

Genesis does not teach that the universe was created over a short period of time and in the relatively recent past.

In addition, the Hebrew word translated as 'day' may designate various intervals of time, and not uniquely a period of 24 hours.

“In [the] beginning God created
the heavens and the earth.”

Genesis 1:1


The Bible does not support

the creationist idea according to which the whole of material creation

was achieved in six 24-hour days.

The Bible does not support the creationist idea

The material universe is described as an expression of dynamic energy from the great Source of life. (Psalm 36:9). The Bible does not therefore support the creationist idea according to which the whole of material creation was achieved in six 24-hour days.
    Furthermore, Jesus Christ, ‘the skilled worker’ who was at his Father’s side during the creation of heaven and Earth (Genesis 1:26, Proverbs 8:22-31) believed in the existence
of the first human couple.

“Did YOU not read that he who created them from [the] beginning made them male and female? ” Matthew 19:4.

He specifies that Abel lived at the ‘foundation of the world’, and designates him as the first martyr, victim of the intolerance of his brother Cain. – Luke 11:48-51.

See also,
Chess piece: Adam and Eve OA 3297
Sacrifice of Cain and Abel     OA 4052

Adam et Eve   RF 1530    Denon salle C


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