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Ancient Mesopotamia
Assyria Nineveh
Arslan Tash Til Barsip
Iran Palace of Darius
Phoenicia Arabia Palmyra
Syrian coast
Ougarit Byblos


Censer arm

E 14687

Sully Room 15 2 showcase

In the middle of the arm,

a bucket contained the now defunct reserve grains of incense, which was burning in the tip cup.

 Incense,  Catholic  and Egyptian ritual

Before placing the tomb, the coffin (or mummy) is standing before the chapel of the tomb, receives libations and incense, before a table offering in charge of food.

An officiating touching his mouth and eyes with help of specialized instruments to return its use of his senses:

it is the ceremony of ‘open mouth and eyes’, which accompanies the recitation of a ritual.


"The gods love perfumes"


says an Egyptian proverb.


It has been noted many similarities with the

Catholic ritual, like communion, the priest at the Eucharist with the resurgent sun reappears over the lotus flower, the procession of the Holy Father, carried on stretchers, and surrounded by fans similar to those of the Egyptian ritual of enthronement ceremony of 'opening the mouth and eyes', intended to provide life to the mummy before introducing it into the vault.  AE58


'Without a doubt the successors

of St. Peter borrowed

this old Egyptian ritual'

Ch Desroches Noblecourt

In the Bible, there is an allusion to the incense trade in Genesis 37:25. A mixture of aromatic gum was prescribed to the Israelites in their exodus from Egypt only for sacred use and following a formula that provided an exclusive.  - Exodus 30:34-38   AE28
The censers are not mentioned
among the religious utensils during
the first four centuries.

The early Christians refused to burn incense
in honor of the Roman emperor and even
take part in its trade. AR97

There is no trace of this practice
for a religious purpose among
the first Christians.

In the Christian system
"incense means the prayers
of the holy ones." - Revelation 5:8.
 Censers E 11270, E 11655
Denon Room B, window C 5 M 16


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