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Ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Assyria Nineveh
Arslan Tash Til Barsip
Iran Palace of Darius
Phoenicia Arabia Palmyra
Syrian coast
Ougarit Byblos




Kudurru of King Melishipak II
 
Sb 22
 
Richelieu room 3
 
 
 
Titles of ownership placed
under the protection of the divinities,
these stone steles, sculpted and
inscribed on both sides,
record gifts decreed
by the monarch.
  
On this boundary stone,
all of the great divinities represented
by their emblems appear in a true symbolic microcosm, organised into a
hierarchy of superimposed registers.

 Kudurru of King Melishipak II

On the orb of the stele, as if on the celestial vault, are the astral divinities: Sin, the Moon, Shamash, the Sun, and Ishtar in the form of a star representing the planet Venus.
 
The gods are represented by their symbols:
tiaras with six rows of horns represent Anu and Enlil, the ram's head and the goat-fish represent Ea or Enki, and finally the emblem of the earth goddess Ninhursag.

The attributes of Marduk, namely the horned dragon and the pointed spade, related to his former role as an agricultural divinity, appear on the third line.
 

 Marduk,
the horned dragon

Babylonians gods
and their symbols

The Law of Moses (Deuteronomy 19:14) forbade moving boundary markers or borders. Job (24:2) speaks of “those who move boundary markers”. God is considerate towards orphans and widows. We read in Proverbs 23:10: “Do not move back the boundary of long ago, and into the field of fatherless boys do not enter.”
 
Large Kudurru of King Melishipak II
 
Sb 23
 
 
Richelieu room 3
 
 
The king, his hand in front of his mouth
in the sign of respectful prayer,
presents his daughter to the
goddess Nannaya.
 
The symbols of the three great astral divinities – the star of Ishtar, the crescent of the Moon-god Sin, and the Sun of Shamash – feature in the sky.
 
The text mentions the gifts of land
made by the king to his daughter.
 

Kudurru of King Melishipak II

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 





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