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Ancient Mesopotamia
Assyria Nineveh
Arslan Tash Til Barsip
Iran Palace of Darius
Phoenicia Arabia Palmyra
Syrian coast
Ougarit Byblos


Hebrew Siloam Inscription

AO 1310
Not on show
This six-line inscription,
a cast of which is housed in the Louvre,
was found on the wall of
the Siloam Tunnel.  A210
It recounts the digging of the tunnel from both ends and indicates the length.
“While the axes were against each other and while three cubits were left to cut, the voice of a man called to his counterpart [...]. And so flowed water from the source to the pool for 1200 cubits and 100 cubits was the height over the head of the stonecutters”.
In 732 BCE, in the face of imminent attack
from the Assyrian Sennacherib,
 “ Hez·e·ki´ah was the one that stopped up
the upper source of the waters of Gi´hon
and kept them directed straight along down
to the west to the City of David.”
- 2 Chronicles 32:30.  A2121
It should be noted that this king did not
place his trust in his military strategy alone,
as “with us there is Jehovah our God to help us and to fight our battles.”
- 2 Chronicles 32:8.

 Tunnel of Siloam, Hezekiah Tunnel

This tunnel is a true technical feat as, despite its length, it only exhibits a 32 cm difference in level. This tunnel appears to correspond with the achievements of King Hezekiah “how he made the pool and the conduit and then brought the water into the city.”  - 2 Kings 20:20 A211
Dug during the reign of Hezekiah to bring water from one end of the city to the other and measuring 530m (1,750 feet) long, Hezekiah’s Tunnel and that of Euphalios in Greece (6th Century)
are considered the greatest works
of hydraulic engineering technology
of the preclassical period.
If it had followed a straight line,
the length would have been 335m
(1,070 feet), i.e. 40% shorter.


Gihon Spring was located just outside of Jerusalem, to the east of the city.

As it was hidden inside a cave, the Assyrians could have had no inkling of its existence. 

“The tactical description of the battles of the Bible cannot be explained by mere inventiveness alone. It suffices, for example, to compare the campaign of Gideon against the Midianites with the battles of the Trojan War, described by Homer.
Any accessible sea shore will do nicely as geographic setting. Not so for the biblical account.  We are thus forced to accept the veracity of the technical narrative of the battles as described in the Bible.” Chaim Herzog & Mordechai Gichon, Battles of the Bible  A212


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