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Ancient Mesopotamia
Assyria Nineveh
Arslan Tash Til Barsip
Iran Palace of Darius
Phoenicia Arabia Palmyra
Syrian coast
Ougarit Byblos

Cylinder Seals
and Stamps from Susa.
AO 29433, etc.
Sully room 12a
showcase 1

These small cylinders and rings from the Achaemenid era illustrate the texts of Esther (1:19; 8:8) and the inviolable nature of the law of the Medes and Persians: “For a writing that is written in the king’s name and sealed with the king’s signet ring it is not possible to undo” A237
Note Cylinder Seal (AO 29433): royal hero beneath the winged globe of Ahura Mazda; the Stamp: royal worship (AOD 127), where the god in Persian attire appears in the winged globe; and Cylinder Seal (AO 22359), scene of worship before the queen or goddess Anahita.
“For a writing that is written in the king’s name and sealed with the king’s signet ring it is
not possible to undo.”
When the decree of Cyrus was found some 18 years after it was issued, King Darius thereby acknowledged the legality of the position of the Jews regarding the building of the temple. - Ezra 6:1-12.
Sphinxes Confronted
with Winged Globe
Sb 3324-25

These panels show animals,
Winged Bull, Griffon and Lion, appearing above them occasionally is the emblem of Ahura Mazda (a winged disc), the main deity
of Zoroastrianism to whom the inscriptions of Persian monarchs make constant reference
from the time of Darius I
onwards.  A241
One of the characteristics of Zoroastrianism is dualism,
the belief in two independent
divine beings. This god was thought to be the creator of all things good. He was perhaps part
  of a triad, made up also of Mithra
and Anahita (goddess of water and fertility).
A number of scholars have linked Anahita with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar.
E. James comments as follows:
“She was worshipped as
‘the Great Goddess whose
name is the Lady’, the ‘all-powerful immaculate one’,
purifying ‘the seed of males [...]
She was, in fact, the Iranian counterpart of the Syrian goddess Anat, the Babylonian goddess Inanna-Ishtar and the Greek goddess Aphrodite.” E. James, The Cult of the Mother-Goddess.


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