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Great Sphinx The Nile
Leisure Temple
The mummy
Book of the Dead
The Gods
Old and New Kingdom
The writing and scribes
Room Campana
Room of Bronzes


Hapy E 4874

Room 3 Showcase 4

Hapi and the day’s Year

Shown with a wide chest and large abdomen,
this genius of the Nile flood is wearing
a head dress depicting three papyri
emerging from the water.

This is a hieroglyph, which means the Delta,
Lower Egypt (No. 4613, Room 7 case 6).

"The genius of the flood is sometimes depicted holding in each hand two vases with water spilling out of them. It is the evocation of the mythical source of the Nile, hiding in a cave surrounded
by snakes on earth. This image is the origin
of the zodiacal sign
of Aquarius. A141

 Hapi and the date of the New Year

The New Year's Day, which every Egyptian respected, was that of the temples and the countryside where Hapi, the Flood, began to spread on the land. It coincided with the warmest moments of the year.

Rulers and priests carried the statue of worship on the terrace of the temple to celebrate the renewal of the annual cycle. Relatives and friends exchanged gifts, including vases filled with the holy water of the Nile.

This statue of a little dog evokes the brightest star in
the constellation
of the dog:

Sothis or Sirius.

She reappears in the sky in mid-July.

The star's little dog, the canicula, has also given its

name to the period of the year
sometimes stifling heat,
namely the heat.

Dog Figurine E 27203

This phenomenon preceded the arrival of a few of the floods, therefore, New Year's Day was celebrated and it marked the beginning of a period between two floods of the Nile.

The date of New Year varies over time and across countries, but there are still narrow and surprising similarities in customs related to this celebration.
See also :

> Cylinder of Gudea


Carte Chronologie Antiquités OrientalesPoisson et  IHS,  emblème des premiers chrétiensEgypte au Louvre au temps de JosephAntiquités Romaines Haut de page