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Notes



Sauf indication contraire, les citations bibliques sont tirées de La Bible de Jérusalem, édition 2007, ou des Saintes Ecritures - Traduction du Monde Nouveau, avec notes et références, édition révisée de 1995 (TMN), version des plus fidèles aux textes originaux (Histoire de la Bible française, par Daniel Lortsch, Emmaüs, 1984, page 263).

Les noms propres sont ceux de la Bible en Français Courant. Les versets renfermant le nom propre de Dieu, ou Tétragramme (voir page 83), sont tirés de la traduction d’André Chouraqui (édition 2003). Les versions suivantes ont également été consultées : Bible des Peuples, Crampon 1905, Liénart, Thompson (Louis Segond révisée) et Osty.

Oriental AntiquitiesOriental Antiquities Egyptian AntiquitiesEgyptian Antiquities Roman AntiquitiesRoman Antiquities


1 - According to Jean Bottéro ‘ once a doctrine has become a part of us it is almost impossible not to try to impose it upon others; but in all honesty one should merely propose it freely and certainly not with persuasion’» Babylone et la Bible, Hachette Littératures, 2006, p 309.

2 - The Greek Septuagint calls it Sýnkhysis which means ’ Confusion’. Later, when talking about the city at that place, the Greek Septuagint Bible called it Babylon.

3 - http://mini-site.louvre.fr/babylone ; Catalogue de l’exposition ‘Babylone’, sous la direction de Béatrice André-Salvini, coéd. musée du Louvre / Editions Hazan, 2008

4 - Regarding the difference of understanding of the name Nimrod the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition, volume XIX, page 703, says that Nimrod, "is the prototype of a rebellious people, his name being interpreted as ’he who made all the people rebellious against God.’ "Regarding this preposition the religious Cyclopedia by M’Clintock and Strong, Volume 7, edition of 1894, page 109, says: The Hebrew preposition liphnei has often, a hostile sense — in front of, for the purpose of opposing.

5 - This expression may be taken in the strict sense or in the sense of warrior, the original word gibbor having the meaning ’hero.’" Catholic encyclopedia, volume x page 741.

6 - Some Hebrew scholars are of the opinion that the name Nimrod is drawn from the Hebrew verb marád, as found in Genesis 14:4. In this case the name would mean " "Let us rebel!" This idea is borne out in the Jewish Targums. For example, the Jerusalem Targum explains: "He was a hunter of the sons of men’. Flavius Josephus, in his work entitled "Antiquities of the Jews," in Book 1, 4, §1 says: "Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such contempt of God’

7 - Nimrod has not been identified with any mythical hero. The most admissible correspondence is with Marduk. chief god of Babylon, probably its historic founder, The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, 1955 Volume 4, edition of 1955, page 2147. "The name Nimrod has not been found in any ancient (say older than 500 B.C.) non-Israelite document or inscription; …Nimrod would suggest to a Jew … the idea of ’rebel,’ mrd = rebel: but this is not likely to be the etymology. By regarding the ’N’ as performative, Nimrod has been identified with Merodach, … with Gilgamesh, … and with various historical kings of Babylonia, . . ." The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 19, page 703.

8 - “The ancient near East was the cradle of many cultural and religious phenomena and some religions are the full-blown fruit therefrom. More than any other religion Christianity … owes its roots to this fascinating Mesopotamian tradition.” B. André-Salvini, Babylone, merveilleuse et maudite, Religions & Histoire, n° 19, mars 2008

9 - The works of Faber, Sir Jones, Hislop, Sir Wilkinson, Rawlinson, have indisputably proved the connection and identity of religious systems of nations most remote from each other […] They must have all derived their religious ideas from a common source and a common centre. Everywhere we find the most startling coincidences in rites, ceremonies, customs, traditions, and in the names and relations of their respective gods and goddesses.” J. Garnier, The Worship of the Dead,Londres, 1909, p.3 ; see also A. Hislop, The Two Babylons,Les éditions Fischbacher, 2000. In this scholarly work, the author endeavours to show the Babylonian traditions found in Catholicism and in religious systems as different as Islam, Judaism, Buddism and Hinduism. The reader is surprised to discover the pagan origins of Christian practices from the Christmas tree to Yule log, from Easter eggs

10 - J G Frazer already noted ““Taken altogether, the coincidences of Christian festivals with the heathen festivals are too close and too numerous to be accidental.’ The Golden Bough p.406. And for Christiane Desroches Noblecourt when talking about the ancient wisdom of the Nile ‘there are so many coincidences that it is impossible not to acknowledge their undeniable, common origins, (notably) the rites having inspired the expression of the Christian era’. Moreover here is what Cardinal JH Newman wrote in 1845 ’In fact, all must admit that to a great degree what is generally accepted as Christian truth can be found in pagan philosophies and religions. …That is largely how the facts appear before us… the church began in Chaldea” Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine

11 - B. André-Leickman, Ch. Ziegler, Naissance de l’écriture, Exposition au Grand Palais, Paris 1982

12 - J.Hastings, A Dictionary of the Bible, 1905, vol IV, p. 791’It is noteworthy that the Bible alone gives a valid explanation for the origin of the diversity of languages today.’

13 - The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1985, vol 22, p. 567. See also J. Bottéro, Babylone et la Bible, op. cit, p 67. «The most archaic documents containing cuneiform writing, in fact any form of writing, are dated by archeologists at around 3200 BCE.”

14 - S. N. Kramer, L’Histoire commence à Sumer, Paris, Arthaud, 1975

15 - Le Monde de la Bible, 1990, n° 67, F. Tallon, A l’origine de l’histoire : les Sumériens de Lagash, p.4

16 - The journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain, 1855, vol 15, p. 232

17 - G. Bromiley, ISBE, 1982, vol 2, p. 659. ; «; “The oldest item known in Paleo-Hebrew is the Gezer Calendar dating from the 10th Century BCE. Taking the form of a schoolboy’s exercise set in verse it shows a simplified version of the agricultural year”. H. Michaud, Sur la pierre et l’argile, Delachaux, 1958, chp 3 p.21-28

18 - After analyzing the Bible in the light of history and archaeology, writer Werner Keller said in the introduction of his book The Bible as History: “In view of the overwhelming mass of authentic and well-attested evidence now available, . . . there kept hammering on my brain this one sentence: ‘The Bible is right after all!’ Archaeology examines history on a different basis from that of the Biblical narrative. It poses different questions and has a different emphasis. Comparing the two can lead to fascinating insights.

19 - The coming of God’s Kingdom on earth could be considered to be the central part of Jesus’ message’. Benedict T. Viviano, Le Royaume de Dieu dans l’histoire, Les Editions du cerf, 1992.

20 - The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Tyndale House Publisher, 1980, partieI, p. 335 ; J. Douglas, New Bible Dictionary, 1985, p. 247. Contrary to the Bible account ‘the Babylonian creation stories are always transformations. The origin of things is never questioned. These things always spring from something transformed’. J. Bottéro, Babylone et la Bible, op. cit, p 142

21 - G.Roux, La Mésopotamie, Le Seuil, Les dieux de Sumer, Légendes de création, chp 6 ; The Bible in the British Museum interpreting the evidence, document 38, Creation Epic (Enuma elis), p.79. Frazer, The Golden Bough, p.84

22 - G. Barton, Archaelogy and the Bible, 1949, p.297v “The Babylonian poem is mythological and polytheistic. Its conception of deity is by no means exalted. As we read the chapter in Genesis today, it still reveals to us the majesty and power of the one God, and creates in the modern man, as it did in the ancient Hebrew, a worshipful attitude toward the Creator.”

23 - Bible scholars agree that the first verse of the Bible describes an act separate from the creative days that follow. Genesis does not teach that the universe was created in a short period of time nor relatively recently. In fact the Hebrew word translated ‘day’ can mean various lengths of time, not just a 24-hour period. Certainly, there is no basis in Scripture for emphasizing ‘creationism’ that states that the physical universe came about in six days of 24 hours.

24 - The Babylonian Legends of the Creation, quoted by P. Wiseman in Creation Revealed in Six Days, 1949, p.58. Pour J. Bottéro, ’The whole poem from the Atra-Hasis tablets was the model for the first few chapters of Genesis. ‘He admits that ‘too many documents are missing to follow the first account word for word.’ J. Bottéro, Babylone et la Bible, op. cit, p 239

25 - A. Parrot, La corne dans l’Ancien Testament, Le Louvre et la Bible, op.cit, p.44

26 - Often seals gave the owner’s name and his position. For example, one seal found in Palestine reads, “Belonging to Shema, the minister of Jeroboam.” - The Biblical World, edited by C. Pfeiffer, 1966, p. 515 (it-2 p 883) ; ISBE, t 4, 1988, 370-394

27 - Flavius Josèphe, Antiquités judaïques, IX, 290 [XIV, 3]

28 - The Egyptians also believed in the flames of hell. The Amduat (French tr. Schuler, José Corti, 2005, p. 182), which goes back to 1375 BCE, says, "You have fallen in your pits [...]. You can neither escape it nor flee. The flames are against you.” This concept was also shared by Plutarch, the Greek philosopher (46-120 CE). “They suffered dishonorable and painful punishments and begged […] for pity in sobs.” (Œuvres morales, VII, Les Belles Lettres, 1974, p.170, in Watchtower, 01/11/08, p 6). This belief in an immortal soul infected Jewish sects. The historian Joseph (La Guerre des Juifs, II, 8, §11, édition Minuit, p 241) reported that the Essenes “in line with the Greeks, relegated criminal souls to an abyss where the dark and cold reigned, and which was eternal purgatory.” And the Apocalypse of Peter, the apocryphal book of the 2nd Century, says on the subject of evil people: “There was a blazing fire which punished them. […] And other men and women were being burned up to their middle and cast down in a dark place and scourged by evil spirits”. The origin of the belief in the flames of hell, where the evil are punished after their death, goes back to several centuries before the birth of Christianity. This notion is not found in the Bible. It is a pagan belief dressed up as Christian teaching.

29 - J. Briend, A. Caubet, P. Pouysségur, Le Louvre et la Bible, Bayard, 2004, p.114

30 - Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, tome XIII, p.121.

31 - Tablette : relation sumérienne de l’histoire du Déluge, in réf 11, p.239. For a résumé of this myth see J. Bottéro, Babylone et la Bible, op. cit, p 145-9J. Bottéro, Babylone et la Bible, op. cit, p 145-9

32 - G. Roux, op.cit, chp 7 Le temps des héros p.137. ’The word deluge could be meant figuratively or could result from a military and climactic disaster.’ J. Briend, op cit, p.56. ‘We can see how this influenced the bible details.’ or also C. Monnier, L’Arche de Noé, Louvre Editions, 2006.

33 - It is of interest that the Chinese character for ‘ship’ is derived from the idea of ‘eight persons in a vessel.’ This bears a striking resemblance to the Bible account about Noah and his family, eight persons, who survived the Flood (1Pe 3:20). “This concept of a world cataclysm during which the earth was submerged by water is found in almost every mythology in the world. The exceptions are Egypt and Japan.” Funk & Wagnalls, standard dictionary of folklore, mythology and legend, op.cit, p 305

34 - “The mythologies of all the ancient nations are interwoven with the events of the Deluge.[…] The observance of a great festival of the dead in commemoration of the event is celebrated by nations widely separated, both by the ocean and centuries of time. This festival is, moreover, held by all on or about the very day on which, according the Mosaic account, the Deluge took place, viz, the seventeenth day of the second month –the month nearly corresponding with our November.” J. Garnier, The Worship of the Dead, Londres, 1909, p.4

35 - G. Bromiley, ISBE, 1982, vol.2, p. 319.

36 - Ancient peoples divided days, months and years. The detailed chronology of Noah’s life records the length of a month. Comparing Genesis 7:11, 24 and Genesis 8:3,4 shows 150 days to be equal to five months.He evidently divided the year into 12 months of 30 days each. See also note 65.

37 - In the Middle Ages most European countries used the Julian calendar and celebrated New Year’s Day on the day of Annunciation the 25th march. The Jewish new year is called Rosh Hashanah and celebrates creation. The most impressive scriptural passage of the liturgy is the one of the binding of Isaac to the altar (Genesis 22). Ancient peoples often chased demons away with loud noise on New Year’s Day. The Jews transformed this practice and blow into the shofar to prefigure the day when god will destroy wickedness in the world. The Chinese celebrate the New Year on the 10th January and the 19th February. Each of the twelve signs of the zodiac is linked to a new year.

38 - B. André-Leickman, Naisssance de l’écriture, 1982, 165, p.223

39 - B. André-Leickman, Naisssance de l’écriture, 1982, 165, p.223

40 - J.Briend, Le Louvre, op cit, p.218 et J.G Frazer, The Golden Bough, Règne annuel, p.88 ; ISBE, t 4, 1988, p 89, 430

41 - This is the hieroglyphic that represents the Delta, Lower Egypt. (N 4613, Room 7 case 6). ‘This flood spirit is sometimes represented with overflowing vases in each hand. Evoking the mythical sources of the Nile in a cave lined with snakes from the earth. From this image originates the sign of the zodiac Aquarius.’ Desroches Noblecourt, op.cit, p.17 ; Symboles de l’Egypte, Poche, 2004, p.75 Ch. Desroches Noblecourt, op.cit, p.17 ; Symboles de l’Egypte, Poche, 2004, p.75

42 - Drinking cup (fragment). This recipient was used for drinking holy water at the New year. The relief decoration is of the Goddess Sothis mounted upon a little dog. The background comprises of Osiris’ vine which would be ripe when the floods arrived at the end of July. In Ch. Desroches Noblecourt, op cit, p.37

43 - The World Book Encyclopaedia, 1984, tome XXIV, p.237

44 - See also Tablette : contrat d’adoption de Nuzi (143) A 10889, in Naissance de l’Écriture, Paris, 1982, p.207

45 - J.Briend et coll, Le Louvre et la Bible, Bayard, 2004, p 171

46 - A. Parrot, La Tour de Babel, Neuchâtel, Delacheaux et Niestlé, 1953, p.17. it-2, p.323, Photo from ziggourat of Our. See also aussi Encarta, Mythes de la Lune

47 - A. Parrot, Mari - capitale fabuleuse, Paris, Payot, 1974, p.36

48 - J.Briend, Le Louvre et la Bible, Paris, Bayard, 2004, p.146

49 - Encarta - Fr , Les mythes du Soleil

50 - W. Durant, The Story of Civilisation, Fr. trad. Ch. Mourey, Lausanne, Editions Rencontre 1966, tome 1, pge 107 "The aureoles that artists from the Middle Ages put around the heads of saints are a remnant of sun worship. " The New Encyclopædia Britannica says: “In Hellenistic and Roman art the sun-god Helios and Roman emperors often appear with a crown of rays. Because of its pagan origin, the form was avoided in Early Christian art, but a simple circular nimbus was adopted by Christian emperors for their official portraits. From the middle of the 4th century, Christ was also shown with this imperial attribute. It was not until the 6th century that the halo became customary for the Virgin Mary and other saints.” - 1976, Micropædia, Vol. IV, p. 864 in rs p.354. See also Sven Achen, Symbols around us, op. cit, p 21: “From the 4th century Christian artists began to show Jesus with a halo and later Mary and the apostles […] The beams radiated from the whole body, which was enclosed by an aureole. This is familiar in images of Budha and Mohammed

51 - Icons are an integral part of the orthodox world. Worship of these bidimensional images of the Christ or saints arose from ancient Babylon and Greece. The faithful believed that the image used in worship was a god. Christian artisans adapted this syncretism and used pagan symbols which they introduced in a new context without purifying them completely.

52 - Béatrice André-Salvini, Babylone, Que sais-je ?, PUF, 2001, p.29. See also Catalogue de l’exposition ‘Babylone’, Paris, Musée du Louvre, 2008, p 48-52

53 - Béatrice André-Salvini, Code de Hammurabi, collection solo (27), Paris, RMN, les symboles du pouvoir, pge 22

54 - J. Briend, Le Louvre et la Bible, Paris, Bayard, 2004, page 181

55 - Which would lead William Albright to state ‘The profound moral and spiritual intuitions of the Bible, which form a unique revelation of God to man through the channels of human experience, are just as true today as they were two or three thousand years ago.”

56 - ‘The third commandment ‘Remembering the Sabbath day to hold it sacred,’ (Exodus 20:8-10) represents a new and unique contribution to mankind’s history, a revolutionary innovation: weekly rest for man, woman and animal. Can we not see in these Ten Words the first structured outline for Human Rights?’ Albert Hari, Les droits de l’homme dans la Bible et aujourd’hui, Editions du cygne, 2001, p.21

57 - Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1971, tome XI, p.43

58 - G. Roux, La Mésopotamie, Seuil, 1995 p.241. Voir aussi Catalogue de l’exposition ‘Babylone’, Paris, 2008, p 98-101

59 - Cour de cassation, ch. Crim. 02/12/03 in La Revue du Praticien, tome 18, n° 650, du 26 avril 2004

60 - Claude Sureau, Son nom est Personne, Albin Michel, 2005. Before birth is a child a thing, a mass of cells or a patient?

61 - The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1985, tome XXI, p.921

62 - “My final lesson of history,” stated Will Durant, “is the same as that of Jesus, just try it. Love is the most practical thing in the world.”

63 - Archaeological writer C. W. Ceram describes the framework of chronological history as “a purely hypothetical structure, and one which threatens to come apart at every joint.”—The Secret of the Hittites, 1956, pp. 133, 134.in it-1 p 450. ’This vast body of tablets that we have at hand (half a million documents, four fifths of which is just ‘bumf’) contains some obvious gaps. For example only a few meager details are known of the great Hammurabi’s life.’ J. Bottéro, Babylone et la Bible, op. cit, p 104, 109.

64 - J.B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, 1974, p. 265 in it-1 p.448, chronology ; “One soon discovers that the accurate portrayal of events as they took place, year by year, during the king’s reign, was not the guiding motive of the royal scribes. It is clear that royal vanity demanded playing fast and loose with historical accuracy.” D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, 1926, vol 1, p.7

65 - ‘The Genesis table of nations is “unique in ancient literature. . . . Such preoccupation with history cannot be found in any other sacred literature of the world.’ G. Buttrick, The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 1962, vol 3, p. 515. According to the Bible, Adam lived for 930 years, Seth for 912, and Methuselah for 969. Did they really live that long? The internal evidence in the Bible points to literal years similar in length to ours. Consider: Had the ancient year been only as long as our month, the following men would have become fathers at an impossibly early age: Kenan before he was six years old and Enoch just over the age of five (Genesis 5:12, 21).

66 - The book The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating compares the Bible’s history of Israel and Judah with ancient cuneiform texts. The result? “Altogether, 15 or 16 kings of Judah and Israel appear, in foreign sources, in complete agreement with their names and times in [the Bible book of] Kings. Not a single king is out of place, nor do foreign sources name one unknown to us in Kings.” (Watchtower, 15/12/08, p 22).

67 - “Isis attracted many devotees, who vowed their lives to her. Her images stood in the temple, crowned as the Queen of Heaven and bearing the infant Horus in her arms. The candles flared and guttered before her, and the wax ex-votos hung about the shrine.” H.G. Wells, Esquisse de l’Histoire universelle (The Outline of History), Payot, Paris, 1925

68 - In his book The Religions of Babylonia and Assyria, French scholar Édouard Dhorme said of Ishtar: “She was the goddess, the lady, the merciful mother who listens to prayer and intercedes before the angry gods and calms them. She became the goddess of goddesses, the queen of all the gods.” For an objective examination of the facts see the very complete study of EO James., The Cult of the Mother-Goddess, Editions Le Mail, 1989. This Professor Emeritus of the History and Philosophy of Religion in the University of London, the development of the concept of divinity from its sources to its transformation into the Christian Mater Ecclesia, living principal of the Church, that we later associate with the images of the Madonna

69 - “From Babylon, this worship of the Mother and the Child spread to the ends of the earth. In Egypt, the Mother and the Child were worshipped under the names of Isis and Osiris. In India, even to this day, as Isi and Iswara; in Asia as Cybele and Deōius; in Greece, as Ceres, the Great Mother, with the babe at her breast, or as Irene, the goddess of Peace, with the boy Plutus in her arms; and even in Thibet, in China, and Japan, the Jesuit missionaries were astonished to find the counterpart of Madonna and her child as devoutly worshipped as in Papal Rome itself; Shing Moo, the Holy Mother in China, being represented with a child in her arms, and a glory around her, exactly as if a Roman Catholic artist had been employed to set her up.” A. Hislop, The Two Babylons, op. cit , p 34-36

70 - J. Bottéro, Babylone et la Bible, op. cit, p 170, 155. ’These are separate beings, grouped into different categories according to their ‘specialty’ sometimes ‘wicked forces’, illnesses or catastrophes that are more or less personalised’.

71 - Literally ‘who had a python’s spirit’ a term associated with the oracle of Delphi. Vine’s Expository Dictionary, vol 1, p.328

72 - The Encyclopoedia Americana, 1977, tome XIII, p.725

73 - Samhain may not be the name of the Celtic god of death but, rather, the name of the festival. According to Jean Markale, French specialist on the Celts, it was probably Lug, the god of light, who was honored during Samhain. When children dressed as ghosts or witches go from house to house demanding a Halloween treat or threatening a mischievous trick, they unwittingly perpetuate the ancient rituals of Samhain. Jean Markale comments: “In receiving something in their hands, they establish, on a symbolic level that they do not understand, a brotherly exchange between the visible and the invisible worlds. That is why the Halloween masquerades are in fact sacred ceremonies.” Halloween, histoire et traditions, Editions Imago, 2000, p.150

74 - ‘The nominal Christian festival of the dead is nothing but an ancient pagan festival that the church, in a political move, resolutely closed its eyes to.’ Frazer, The Golden Bough, Origines anciennes de la fête chrétienne des morts, p. 453

75 - “Certain popular beliefs connected with All Souls’ Day are of pagan origin and immemorial antiquity. Thus the dead are believed by the peasantry of many Catholic countries to return to their former homes on All Souls’ night and partake of the food of the living.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1910, tome 1, p.709 in rs 181

76 - A regular commemoration began when on May 13 Mary and all the martyrs. Markale comments thus the Roman gods left their place to the saints of the triumphant religion. The change of date to November came under Pope Gregory III (731-741 C.E.), who ordered that ‘all the saints known and unknown’ be honored on November 1. Exactly why he did this is unknown. Samhain remained a popular festival among the Celtic people throughout the Christianization of Great Britain. The British commemoration of All Saints’ Day may have prompted the universal celebration of this feast throughout the Christian church. As for All Souls’ Day, this holiday was fixed on November 2 during the 11th century by the monks of Cluny, France. J. Markale, Halloween, op.cit, p.110-114

77 - Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911, tome II, p.796 (in cr 105)

78 - Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1946, tome VIII, p. 785, Etruscan. So common was divination amongst the Etruscans that practices of this nature became known by the Romans as disciplina Etrusca, Etruscan science. The Etruscan priest’s staff, resembling a shepherd’s crook, has been identified with the origin of the crosier used by Christendom’s bishops.

79 - Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, Cambridge, vol 1, p.328

80 - ’In treating illnesses two methods were believed to be effective; plants and magic. These two can be found in a tablet (AO 7682 room 3 display 15), a remedy for scorpion stings contains a magic formula in Sumerian followed by a treatment in Akkadian.’ Le Monde de la Bible, 1990, n° 67, B. André-Salvini, p.13.

81 - Engberg, L’aube de la civilisation et la vie dans l’antiquité orientale - Fr , angl., 1940, p.203-3

82 - ‘’Written’ divination is typically Mesopotamian and we have numerous remains … from the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD. Only the professional diviners or ‘bârû’ (lit ‘examiners) knew the divination code since their role was to examine the events or unexpected and abnormal objects in order to decipher and read the pieces of the future inscribed by the gods.’ J. Bottéro, Babylone et la Bible, op. cit, p 162-8.

83 - “There is strong evidence that the zodiac was formed at Babylon about 2100 B.C. Several of the ancient constellation figures have a remarkably Babylonian character and nearly all may be explained from Babylonian mythology.” Morris Jastrow, The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia ; L. Sprague de Camp, Great Cities of the Ancient World, 1972, New York, p.150 (in rs 143)

84 - The Encyclopaedia American, 1977, tome II, p.557 (in rs 143)

85 - The Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1946, tome VII, p.786. For Jacqueline Gachet ‘The belief was that the god to whom the animal had been offered would become identified with it; consequently the reading of the signs on the organs would allow access to the spirits that could answer questions regarding the future. In Mesopotamia and the Near-East this is done by examining a sheep’s liver.’ Le pays d’Ougarit autour de 1200 av. J.-C., Actes du Colloque International 1993, Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations, 1995, p. 247. On the other hand, the Israelites must reject such practices.

86 - Louis-Hugues Vincent, Revue biblique, vol 48, Paris, Gabalda, 1939, p.156

87 - Palo Matthiae, Aux origines de la Syrie - Ebla retrouvée, Paris, Gallimard, 1996, p.19

88 - A. Lemaire, Le monde de la Bible, op cit, p.216. “Before the discovery of the Mari archives, we knew almost nothing of the history, institutions, and daily life in Mesopotamia and Syria at the beginning of the second millennium. Thanks to them, it has been possible to write whole chapters of history.” It is also quite likely that the Jewish exiles taken to Babylon after the destruction of Jerusalem in 607 B.C.E. skirted the ruins of Mari.

89 - A. Parrot, L’aventure archéologique, Paris, Robert Laffont, 1979, p.180

90 - “Archaeology has rendered the Bible more intelligible through a fuller knowledge of its background and setting.” Sir Frederic Kenyon, The Bible and Archaelology, 1940, p.279

91 - L’histoire,Paris, n° 98, mars 1987, p.59

92 - B. André-Leickman, Ch. Ziegler, Naissance de l’écriture, Exposition au Grand Palais, Paris 1982 p.336 (284) ; A. Parrot, La Tour de Babel, Delacheaux et Niestlé, 1953, p.12

93 - Béatrice André-Salvini, Babylone, Que sais-je ?, n° 292, Paris, PUF, 2001, pge 94-101

94 - See the restoration of Marduk’s temple. Catalogue de l’exposition « De Sumer à Babylone », 1983, Bruxelles, p. 36. And the model of the reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. See also Catalogue de l’exposition ‘Babylone’, op. cit, n° 141, 142 et 388-398.

95 - Can we however suggest like Jean Bottéro that the author of the Book of Job is Mesopotamian in origin? How do we then explain such scientific accuracy in the description of the Earth and its wonders? (chap. 36 to 41). How was he able to conjure up so accurately the correct direction of the water cycle? How could this man know that the Earth was suspended in emptiness (chap. 26:7), a notion opposite to the beliefs of his time? And how could he have been able to guess that the problems related to origins of evil began in heaven (chap. 1 and 2)? These questions remain unanswered if we fail to acknowledge the inspired nature of the Bible story.

96 - B. André-Leickman, Ch. Ziegler, Naissance de l’écriture, Exposition au Grand Palais, Paris 1982, p.236 (182) et p.238 (184)

97 - Beside the Ishtar Gate in Babylon hundreds of cuneiform tablets were found dated from Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. ‘Jeconiah’s name appears on four documents regarding distribution of food rations. The name is written in different ways, Ja’ukînu, Jakûnînu. He is said to be ‘king of the land of Jâhudu … These tablets therefore confirm the captivity of the this king’ from the land of Judah. A. Parrot, Cahiers d’archéologie biblique n°8, Babylone et l’Ancien Testament, Neuchâtel, Delacheaux et Niestlé, 1956, p.84-85. See also La Captivité à Babylone, Eugène Delacroix, RF 4774 (416)

98 - Werner Keller, La Bible arrachée aux sables, Paris, Plon, 1962, p.256

99 - The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, tome 4, 1988, p. 87, 919

100 - A. Parrot, Cahiers d’archéologie biblique n°8, Babylone et l’Ancien Testament, Neuchâtel, Delacheaux et Niestlé, 1956. In his epilogue (p117) the author cites certain prophecies that were fulfilled to the letter. “And Babylon, the decoration of kingdoms, the beauty of the pride of the Chaldeans, must become as […] Sodom and Gomorrah. She will never be inhabited.” Isaiah 13:19-22. “She must become a desolate waste in her entirety. As for anyone passing along by Babylon, he will stare in astonishment and whistle on account of all her plagues […]. She will nevermore be dwelt in, nor will she reside for generation after generation.” Jeremiah 50:13, 39.

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