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Babylonian hostility in the Book of Job

The book of Job is considered a masterpiece of world literature. It reveals the questions posed to the universe by the main opponent of God, namely the integrity of intelligent creatures face to the legitimacy of the rule of God (Job 1,2). The expression hasSatan (Satan, the opponent) appears here for the first time in the Hebrew text of the Bible. The name "Job", Hebrew 'Iyov means "object of hostility." This kind of hostility Babylonian be physical and philosophical first
"At that Satan answered Jhvh: “Is it for nothing that Job has feared God? Have you not put up a protective hedge around him and his house and everything he has? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his livestock has spread out in the land. But, for a change, stretch out your hand and strike everything he has, and he will surely curse you to your very face.” 

Then Jhvh said to Satan: “Look! Everything that he has is in your hand. Only do not lay your hand on the man himself!” So Satan went out from the presence of Jhvh.” - Job 1: 9-12
The name "Job"

means "object of hostility"


  Babylonian hostility will be physical and philosophical 

The name Job means object of hostility

The hand and arm are often used in the Bible as a figure of speech. While the arm often symbolizes the ability to produce or concentrate strength, hand represents the force or power used. It is remarkable, through the book of Job, how the opponent used in the Babylonian religion of the land agents to express his hostility.

The son of Job

inviting their sisters

to a feast   

OA 1742


Attributed to the Master 


1 st floor room 19

"Now on the day when his sons and daughters were eating and drinking wine in their oldest brother’s house, a messenger came to Job and said: ‘The cattle were plowing and the donkeys were grazing beside them,when the Sa·be′ans attacked and took them, and they killed the servants with the sword. I am the only one who escaped to tell you.’ "- Job 1: 13-15

Babylonian hostility will be physical and philosophical


Lot and his Daughters

MR 2462

Master IC


1st floor living room 20 1

Sabeans were worshipers of heavenly bodies. AA102 This worship is of Babylonian origin. Job apparently alludes to this practice. He speaks of the danger of leaving a cult object, such as the sun or moon, seduce his heart to the point of making a gesture of worship. "If (…) my mouth kissed my hand in worship of them; Then that would be an error deserving punishment by the judges,For I would have denied the true God above." (Job 31:27, 28) AA98

" Adorant of  Larsa"    AO 15704

Richelieu room 3 showcase 1

This bronze statuette
represents a character
kneeling in the attitude
of prayer. The face and hands
were plated in gold leaf.
On the base, a side
an animal figure, on the other
a cuneiform inscription.
On the front, a small basin
was to serve as a receptacle
libation. The adoring probably
King Hammurabi. It is presented
one knee before the deity,
a hand over her mouth.

"This one was still speaking when another came and began to say," The Chaldeans formed three bands, set off against the camels and took them; and they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I was able to escape, only me, alone, to tell thee. "- Job 1:17
Finally the wealth of Job were undermined by three bands of the Chaldeans. Originally this people occupied the southern part of the alluvial plain of Babylonia.

The misfortunes of Job

MR 2458

Pierre Courteys

Covered Cup,
painted Email

Richelieu 1 st floor
  room 20 vit

These three false friends were imbued with Babylonian philosophy. The first was Eliphaz from Teman. The Temani were known for their wisdom apostate (Jeremiah 49: 7) Bildad was descended from Abraham through his sixth son, Shuakh.. His name could mean "Bel has loved" while indicating its Babylonian training, Bel is also the title of Marduk, the supreme leader of Babylon. The third member of the trio called Zophar. The Septuagint speaks of him as "Zophar king of Minaeans" an Arab tribe.

 Three false friends imbued with Babylonian philosophy

These three friends "sat down with him for seven days and seven nights; and no one said a word to him, for they saw that the pain was very great. "(Job 2:13). There is never a question in the habit of following Bible that the Israelites would have observed a period of silence.
On the contrary, at the funeral of Jacob, we heard "a very large and very impressive lamentation, and [Joseph] watched his father mourning rites for seven days" (Genesis 50:10). These seven days of silence seems correspond to a Babylonian practice that we implore the invisible powers to know the meaning of a situation.    

The seven days of silence
seems to correspond to
a Babylonian practice
that we implore
the invisible powers
to know the meaning
of a situation.


 Job on the dung

OA 966

Awarded to Colin Nouailher

Mid-sixteenth century

Limoges Painted enamel on copper
Richelieu 1 st floor living room 15 3

" So Satan went out from the presence
of Jhvh and struck Job with painful boils
from the sole of his foot to the crown
of his head. And Job took a piece
of broken pottery to scrape himself,
and he was sitting among the ashes."

Job 2: 8

This hostility is also evident in the use of titles that imply divinity. It should be noted that none of the three friends of Job used the divine name, YHWH, while Job cited five times the name of God. They followed the Babylonian custom, using the general form el or elohim (the plural of excellence) for God.  AA99

And if not employed Eliphaz once ha-el, "the true God," he does disparagingly. - Job 10:15 AA100

None of the three friends of Job used the divine name, YHWH

In the religion of Babylon, beneath the gods were 'demons', a generic term that does not exist in Sumerian or Akkadian. They had the power to afflict men of all kinds of diseases. Everywhere we prayed the gods supplicants to help men to resist. In the Bible, it is always spiritual creatures, invisible and evil, equipped with superhuman powers.
 Demon Humbaba AO 9034
Richelieu room 3 showcase 6
Often figured so
repulsive, this demon
was supposed to protect
against evil influences.
 His performances were
often placed at the entrance

 Eliphaz appeals

at one
experiences spiritualists
In his first speech, Eliphaz uses one of his spiritualistic experiences to give more weight to his argument (Job 4:14). The Law of God that knew Job, formally forbade demonism in all its forms. - Deuteronomy 18: 10-12.

Eliphaz uses spiritualistic experiences

Finally, it is significant to note that these friends have remained silent about a possible resurrection. In his defense, Job uses many times the phrase "mortal man." He rejected the Babylonian idea that man has an immortal soul. He understood that the man is a living soul, and he alluded to his hope in the resurrection. - Job 14: 14,13.

This materialist philosophy finally expressed in feelings of hostility manifested against Job: the wise prosper and the guilty are tormented (Job 4: 7,8) God does not trust his servants (4:18), call conformism inviting him to follow the traditions (8, 8.9), a cult simplistic enough, without trying too far (11: 7). AA101

For the first time in the Hebrew text of the Bible
appears here the term hasSatan (Satan, the Opponent

Divine conclusion and end of hostilities, “ My anger burns against you and your two companions, for you have not spoken the truth about me as my servant Job has (…) I will surely accept his request not to deal with you according to your foolishness, for you have not spoken the truth about me as my servant Job has.” Job 42: 7,8

Masterpiece of world literature, the book of Job reveals the questions before the universe by the main opponent of God, namely the integrity of intelligent creatures face to the legitimacy of the rule of God (Job 1.2 ). No history book written by man could not do it, because the trouble started in heaven. A195
For the first time in the Hebrew text of the Bible the term appears here hasSatan (Satan, the Opponent (Job 1: 6.) It is also the father of lies, the 'original serpent', because of the biblical misfortunes of humans (Revelation 12: 9). Jesus forcefully denounce in the exact identity.


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