Visit
Ajoutez à vos favoris
Recommandez LB
the Louvre with the Bible
default.titre
default.titre
Subcribe to the newsletter !
www.louvrebible.org
News
Painting of the month
Work of the month
Book of the month
Article of the month
Emplacement
Ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Assyria Nineveh
Arslan Tash Til Barsip
Iran Palace of Darius
Phoenicia Arabia Palmyra
Levant Syrian coast
Ougarit Byblos
Great Sphinx The Nile
Leisure Temple
Sarcophagi
The mummy
Book of the Dead
Gods
Old and New Kingdom
Writing and scribes
Campana room
Room of Bronzes
Caryatids Room
Roman art
Julio-Claudian Period
Late Antiquity
Gaul, Africa and Syria
Thematic visit
Search a work
Research theme
Entertaining visit
Did you know - 1
Did you know - 2
Did you know - 3
Slideshow
More information ?
Order the book
Print Purchase Order
Contact us
Bibliography
Notes
Glossaire



Google translation
When the money did not exist
Tags: barter, mine century, daric, weight units, touchstone
Before the gold and silver are used as a medium of exchange, one of the oldest forms of commercial transaction is barter of livestock or food.
The Latin word pecunia (silver) drift polloi means cattle. "They (the Egyptians) therefore brought their livestock to Joseph, and Joseph gave them bread in exchange for horses. "(Genesis 47:17). And Mesha, king of Moab, he said he "paid the king of Israel one hundred thousand lambs and male sheep unshorn" (2 Kings 3: 4). Food is also a medium of exchange. Solomon promised to pay workers with significant amounts of wheat, barley, wine and oil (1R 5:2-6, 2 Chronicles 2:3-10) nAA24-/. -

The Latin word pecunia (Silver)
drift pecus
means cattle

"The Egyptians thus brought their livestock
Joseph, and Joseph gave them bread
in exchange for their horses. "
(Genesis 47:17).
As business transactions require a weighing units weight naturally also became monetary units. This is the phase of monetary barter appears very early in Mesopotamia. -n-AA25AA24-/. -

The Latin word pecunia (Silver)
drift pecus
means cattle

"The Egyptians thus brought their livestock
Joseph, and Joseph gave them bread
in exchange for their horses. "
(Genesis 47:17).
As business transactions require a weighing units weight naturally also became monetary units. This is the phase of monetary barter appears very early in Mesopotamia. AA25
This unit of measurement,
which will become a
currency
is marked
A half-mine '
(Here 248 grams)
and wears the crescent moon,
emblem of the moon-god
Sin, Our protector.
This weight diorite from the early twenty-first century BC.
\ "\"
Weight crescent
AO 22187
Richelieu
Room 2 window 6 (8)
The mine is a unit of weight measurement (manu) whose name is formed from the root meaning "count". -n-AA26AA25
This unit of measurement,
which will become a
currency
is marked
A half-mine '
(Here 248 grams)
and wears the crescent moon,
emblem of the moon-god
Sin, Our protector.
This weight diorite from the early twenty-first century BC.
\ "\"
Weight crescent
AO 22187
Richelieu
Room 2 window 6 (8)
The mine is a unit of weight measurement (manu) whose name is formed from the root meaning "count". AA26
It was about â½ kg in Assyria and Babylonia.
The Egyptians did not know the coins. Transactions are compared with reference values ​​(metal grain) assessed weight. The unit of weight in the Middle Kingdom is the ring (about 12 7 g). From the New Kingdom the unit is deben which weighs about 100 g.
\ "\"
Sully
Ground Floor
Room 6 6 window
Weights and Measures
\ "\"
\ "\"\ "\"\ "\"
But cattle and food were not always convenient though often used as a means of exchange transaction means. We therefore came to use metals such as gold and silver. As business transactions require a weighing units weight naturally also became monetary units. This is the case for the Israelites. We know five main divisions:. Guéra, half a shekel after the shekel, the mine, and talent -n-AA27AA26
It was about â½ kg in Assyria and Babylonia.
The Egyptians did not know the coins. Transactions are compared with reference values ​​(metal grain) assessed weight. The unit of weight in the Middle Kingdom is the ring (about 12 7 g). From the New Kingdom the unit is deben which weighs about 100 g.
\ "\"
Sully
Ground Floor
Room 6 6 window
Weights and Measures
\ "\"
\ "\"\ "\"\ "\"
But cattle and food were not always convenient though often used as a means of exchange transaction means. We therefore came to use metals such as gold and silver. As business transactions require a weighing units weight naturally also became monetary units. This is the case for the Israelites. We know five main divisions:. Guéra, half a shekel after the shekel, the mine, and talent AA27
\ "\"
Weight lion-shaped Sb 2718
Sixth - fourth century BC Bronze
Sully Ground ch Iran Room 12 has
\ "\"
Weight with sign of Tanit AO 2042
Fri - second century BC Lead
Sully R fl Levant Room 17 b
At the time of Abraham, precious metals took the place of money, probably formed into bars or rings (Genesis 24:22, Joshua 7:21). The Hebrew word rendered by current currency kèsèph, means literally money metal. (Genesis 5:12 p.m., TMN, note). These metal objects were often weighed at the time of payment which also implied the existence of a known and accepted by all system.
And "Abraham weighed to Ephron the amount of money which he had spoken in the presence of the son of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver in the merchants. "Genesis 11:16 p.m.. After purchasing land in Israel, the prophet Jeremiah wrote: "And I began to weigh the money, seven shekels and ten pieces of silver. "Jeremiah 32:9
The Hebrew word for century is shukal, which means to weigh.
Archaeological evidence suggests that a shekel weighed about 11.4 g. The shekel was borrowed
the Canaanites, who themselves borrowed from the Babylonians. -n-AA28AA27
\ "\"
Weight lion-shaped Sb 2718
Sixth - fourth century BC Bronze
Sully Ground ch Iran Room 12 has
\ "\"
Weight with sign of Tanit AO 2042
Fri - second century BC Lead
Sully R fl Levant Room 17 b
At the time of Abraham, precious metals took the place of money, probably formed into bars or rings (Genesis 24:22, Joshua 7:21). The Hebrew word rendered by current currency kèsèph, means literally money metal. (Genesis 5:12 p.m., TMN, note). These metal objects were often weighed at the time of payment which also implied the existence of a known and accepted by all system.
And "Abraham weighed to Ephron the amount of money which he had spoken in the presence of the son of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver in the merchants. "Genesis 11:16 p.m.. After purchasing land in Israel, the prophet Jeremiah wrote: "And I began to weigh the money, seven shekels and ten pieces of silver. "Jeremiah 32:9
The Hebrew word for century is shukal, which means to weigh.
Archaeological evidence suggests that a shekel weighed about 11.4 g. The shekel was borrowed
the Canaanites, who themselves borrowed from the Babylonians. AA28

The evidence
archaeological suggest
a shekel weighed
approximately 11.4 g

\ "\"
Weights entered AO 23015-18
Four weights entered

Iron Age (1150 - 587 BC f)

Mount Ophel, Jerusalem
Pink marble
Sully Ground floor
Levant Room D showcase 5
These polished stone balls are flattened at the base. Small fractions of a century could not measure a centimeter in diameter and weigh 2-3 gr. Them to identify more easily the burner seals inscribed value on weight.
God commanded the honesty and accuracy
in the use of scales (Lev 7:35 p.m., 36)
misleading because a balance was detestable to him
(Pr 11:1; 4:11 p.m.; Ezekiel 45:10).
It happened that the Israelites used fraudulently scales (Ho 12:7; Am 8:5) and went further in the deception by using inaccurate weights, a game to buy and another to sell. - Pr 8:23 p.m..
"Two kinds of weights are
something detestable to YHWH,
a deceitful balance,
this is not good. "
Proverbs 20: 23
"As for the merchant, in his hand are the balances of deceit, yes, he likes to rob." Hosea 12:7
The weighing of gold and his wife    
Inv 1444
 
Quentin METSYS
Leuven 1465/1466 - Antwerp, 1530
 
Richelieu
2nd floor room 9 Netherlands
\ "\"
Table allegorical and moralistic content (signs of vanity, Christians such as the balance of Judgment symbols denunciation \ 's greed and excitement \' s honesty)
more than documentary and descriptive (evocation \ a professional reality \ 's time: lender \' s money, or devotion time: books \ hours)
\ 's as well as the costumes, seem curiously archaic return to an earlier era.
The mirror is a fascinating detail that recalls the virtuosity of Van Eyck.
www.louvre.fr
Many believe that the first coins were minted around 700 BC. n. è. So maybe after returning from exile in Babylon the Israelites began to use coins in their country. Postexiliens the biblical books refer to the Persian daric (1 Chronicles 29:7; Ezr 8:27) and drachmas (Heb.: darkemônim), which generally correspond to the daric (Ezr 2:69; 7:70-72 Do ). -n-AA29AA28

The evidence
archaeological suggest
a shekel weighed
approximately 11.4 g

\ "\"
Weights entered AO 23015-18
Four weights entered

Iron Age (1150 - 587 BC f)

Mount Ophel, Jerusalem
Pink marble
Sully Ground floor
Levant Room D showcase 5
These polished stone balls are flattened at the base. Small fractions of a century could not measure a centimeter in diameter and weigh 2-3 gr. Them to identify more easily the burner seals inscribed value on weight.
God commanded the honesty and accuracy
in the use of scales (Lev 7:35 p.m., 36)
misleading because a balance was detestable to him
(Pr 11:1; 4:11 p.m.; Ezekiel 45:10).
It happened that the Israelites used fraudulently scales (Ho 12:7; Am 8:5) and went further in the deception by using inaccurate weights, a game to buy and another to sell. - Pr 8:23 p.m..
"Two kinds of weights are
something detestable to YHWH,
a deceitful balance,
this is not good. "
Proverbs 20: 23
"As for the merchant, in his hand are the balances of deceit, yes, he likes to rob." Hosea 12:7
The weighing of gold and his wife    
Inv 1444
 
Quentin METSYS
Leuven 1465/1466 - Antwerp, 1530
 
Richelieu
2nd floor room 9 Netherlands
\ "\"
Table allegorical and moralistic content (signs of vanity, Christians such as the balance of Judgment symbols denunciation \ 's greed and excitement \' s honesty)
more than documentary and descriptive (evocation \ a professional reality \ 's time: lender \' s money, or devotion time: books \ hours)
\ 's as well as the costumes, seem curiously archaic return to an earlier era.
The mirror is a fascinating detail that recalls the virtuosity of Van Eyck.
www.louvre.fr
Many believe that the first coins were minted around 700 BC. n. è. So maybe after returning from exile in Babylon the Israelites began to use coins in their country. Postexiliens the biblical books refer to the Persian daric (1 Chronicles 29:7; Ezr 8:27) and drachmas (Heb.: darkemônim), which generally correspond to the daric (Ezr 2:69; 7:70-72 Do ). AA29
\ "\"
Gold daric   
Gen 44 Fds
Sully
Ground floor
Room 12 has one window
This daric who was beaten for two centuries from the late sixth century BC. n. è. shows on the side facing a king, one knee, holding his right hand a spear and left an arc.
\ "\"
At the same time that the prophet Jeremiah innovative traders Lydia found a way to simplify exchanges: the use of coins in standard weight, guaranteed by an official stamp.
The Lydians have found a local variety of black rock allowed to test the purity of gold. This use of the Lydian stone, or touchstone, could control the title of currencies, and thus establish a more reliable monetary system.
\ "\"\ "\"
This piece of
shale alluvial
prints on stone
traces which are
compared to those
submitted by an object
gold or
silver
under known.
\ "\"
Red-figure amphora     G 197
Around 500 bc
Side A:
Croesus on the pyre
Sully
Campana Gallery IV
Room 43 showcase 19
Croesus, the last king of Lydia, was defeated by the Persian king Cyrus the Great, he built a pyre to be burned.
Recognizing the truth that Solon had told him, he exclaimed: "O Solon, Solon! "This remarkable speech by Cyrus saved her life. He explained that the winner philosopher who had visited him in his palace at Sardis, far from being dazzled by all the treasures of Croesus, was content to say:
"Do not call anyone happy before his death. "
The gold used to experience the touchstone is being spread among traders, this word came to mean a method of testing. In Greek, it also applies to torment people subjected to the ordeal of torture. The Greek word (basanizo) has meaning for first try metals with the touchstone. "-n-AA30AA29
\ "\"
Gold daric   
Gen 44 Fds
Sully
Ground floor
Room 12 has one window
This daric who was beaten for two centuries from the late sixth century BC. n. è. shows on the side facing a king, one knee, holding his right hand a spear and left an arc.
\ "\"
At the same time that the prophet Jeremiah innovative traders Lydia found a way to simplify exchanges: the use of coins in standard weight, guaranteed by an official stamp.
The Lydians have found a local variety of black rock allowed to test the purity of gold. This use of the Lydian stone, or touchstone, could control the title of currencies, and thus establish a more reliable monetary system.
\ "\"\ "\"
This piece of
shale alluvial
prints on stone
traces which are
compared to those
submitted by an object
gold or
silver
under known.
\ "\"
Red-figure amphora     G 197
Around 500 bc
Side A:
Croesus on the pyre
Sully
Campana Gallery IV
Room 43 showcase 19
Croesus, the last king of Lydia, was defeated by the Persian king Cyrus the Great, he built a pyre to be burned.
Recognizing the truth that Solon had told him, he exclaimed: "O Solon, Solon! "This remarkable speech by Cyrus saved her life. He explained that the winner philosopher who had visited him in his palace at Sardis, far from being dazzled by all the treasures of Croesus, was content to say:
"Do not call anyone happy before his death. "
The gold used to experience the touchstone is being spread among traders, this word came to mean a method of testing. In Greek, it also applies to torment people subjected to the ordeal of torture. The Greek word (basanizo) has meaning for first try metals with the touchstone. "AA30
This explanation illuminates intriguing biblical texts, such as Matthew 6:34 p.m. ET Apocalypse 20:10.
"Then his master brought him and said: 'slave
wicked, I forgave thee all that debt, when you me
have begged. Do not you had your turn to have mercy on your coesclave like myself I had pity on thee?
Whereupon his master got angry, delivered him to the jailers, until he made everything he had. "
Matthew 18: 32-34
According to an encyclopedia
Biblical -n-AA31AA30
This explanation illuminates intriguing biblical texts, such as Matthew 6:34 p.m. ET Apocalypse 20:10.
"Then his master brought him and said: 'slave
wicked, I forgave thee all that debt, when you me
have begged. Do not you had your turn to have mercy on your coesclave like myself I had pity on thee?
Whereupon his master got angry, delivered him to the jailers, until he made everything he had. "
Matthew 18: 32-34
According to an encyclopedia
Biblical -n-AA31
It is likely that this is imprisonment itself
was considered
a 'torment' and do not see the 'bullies'
something other than jailers.
"And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire
and brimstone, where [were already] and the beast
and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night
forever. "
Revelation 8:10 p.m.
These 'torment' eternal
Satan suggests
his judgment will
touchstone, asking
and the criteria for a subsequent case.
L \ 'use of the Lydian touchstone and perhaps allows a better understanding of the enigma of the text of the Apocalypse and the words of Christ.

References:
Jean Andreau "From Greece to Rome: transmission and evolution of techniques changers-bankers," Les Cahiers du Centre of Historical Research, 4 | 1989. URL: http://ccrh.revues.org/
Dictionary of Greek Bailly Abstract French dictionary
Encyclopedia insightful study of the Scriptures
ISBE, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Volume 3, 1986, Money,
ISBE, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Volume 4, p 880, Tormentors  
F. Joannes, Mesopotamia in the 1st century BC, Armand Colin, 2008
GW Knight, The Bible illustrated guide to customs & curiosities, Barbour, 2007
Alan Millard, stones that speak, Lights on biblical archaeological sites, Excelsis, 1985
Wikipedia, Croesus, Lydia





To short Visit

To normal Visit

Oriental Antiquities    Oriental Antiquities Departement
Egyptian Antiquities    Egyptian Antiquities Departement
Roman Antiquities    Roman Antiquities Departement